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DNA Paternity Testing

Genetic material passed down from parents to their offspring is called deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA. Here, paternity refers to fatherhood, and DNA Paternity Testing is conducted to determine the child’s biological father. The basis of the procedure is each person's distinct DNA; apart from identical twins, DNA paternity tests are the most dependable method, with a 99.9% accuracy rate, for identifying a child's biological father.

How Does a DNA Paternity Test Work?

The DNA paternity test is the scientific method of collecting the DNA sample from the child, the man alleging to be the father and mother if needed. The samples are obtained through either of the two methods:

  • Mouth Swab: Buccal cells are collected by swabbing the inside of the cheeks of the concerned persons.

  • Blood Sample: The medical authorities collect the blood samples of the potential father and the child for further testing.

The samples are then sent to the laboratory for further processing and analysis through Polymerase Chain Reaction, making it significantly easier to analyse, and then the amplified DNA is compared between the child and the alleged father. If the results are positive, i.e. if the child’s DNA matches the likely father's DNA profile, then it is highly accurate to say that the alleged father is the biological father of the child.

Ways of DNA Paternity Testing

Here are some of the ways of DNA paternity testing:

  • A Analysing fetal DNA discovered in a pregnant woman's blood during the first trimester is the noninvasive prenatal paternity test (NIPP). A lab specialist takes a sample of cheek cells from the prospective father and compares it with the information from the fetal DNA.

  • A medical professional removes a tiny sample of placental tissue during chorionic villus sampling (CVS). This operation is done via the mother's cervix or abdomen. The mother's and the potential father's DNA are compared with the samples in a lab. Ten to thirteen weeks of pregnancy, CVS is usually done. There is a small chance of miscarriage or pregnancy loss with this procedure.

  • A medical professional extracts a tiny amount of amniotic fluid during amniocentesis. An abdominal needle is inserted into the mother to perform the test. The fluid sample is compared in a lab to the mother's and possibly the father's DNA. During the fifteenth and twentieth weeks of pregnancy, amniocentesis is performed. The test marginally raises the chance of miscarriage.

For years, the question of paternity presented grave challenges, but from the 1990s, the pattern has changed. Paternity tests can provide answers when a child's paternity is in question. With the advancement of technology and science, the reliability of the DNA paternity test has increased manifold. Choose the best DNA paternity testing method for your situation with the help of your healthcare provider.

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